Dog  Welfare in a Research Environment

Purpose-bred dogs have the advantage of being able to be trained with scripted and controlled experiences, and it is this range of physical and social stimuli that build confidence in methods of coping. The handling of puppies from birth to weaning can impact a wide range of aspects which include the rate of growth as well as weight loss, the rate of learning and exploratory behavior, emotionality physiological and physiological responses to water and food deprivation and the incidence of some diseases or pathogens (Committee on Distress and Pain in laboratory animals, 1992). It is especially important for puppies to be introduced with dogs and humans and to adjust to different environments from the age of 3-12 weeks of age (Scott and Fuller 1965). Rewarding socialization and acclimation must be an ongoing process as dogs have been known to show behavioral regression when they get older (Boxall et al., 2004).

Young puppies have a high development-related need for continuous, intimate interactions with their fellow conspecifics (Scott and Fuller, 1965) and this can be easily accommodated in a breeding facility as in the absence of health issues for the mother, puppy or littermates. If a puppy is required separation from his mother or other littermates, procedures should be in place to provide human socialization and limit as much as is possible the time it is separated. Puppies should have separation experiences during their early development and should be in a safe environment that does not have physical restrictions as well. Dogs can become overly sensitive when they finally are separated from their other littermates(Elliot and Scott 1961), so incremental separations can be less stressful.

Another crucial aspect of the training puppies is to learn to have confidence in the direction of people as part of the social system. Similar to how puppies learn to be subdued by their mothers the animal care personnel must help them accept control from humans in a nonthreatening way. It can be helpful to determine how puppies accept human interaction and control (Meunier 2006; Wolfle, 1990).

For dogs older than 10 years that were purchased from dealers who are random sources, the long-term background information is unknown. Tests for temperament will be the major determination about the dog’s fit to be used in a laboratory setting. However, temperament tests aren’t uniform or reliable, however, general traits can be assessed (Beaver, 2009). Relaxed, nonaggressive and adaptable dogs are preferred.View the chapter Book for purchase

Cloning of Canines

Byeong Chun Lee, in Principles of Cloning (Second Edition), 2014

History of Dog Cloning

Cloning of dogs began in large breeds of dogs. “Snuppy,” the first cloned dog, was born in 2005 using cells from a donor male Afghan hound. The results, entitled “Dogs cloned from adult somatic cells,” were published in the journal Nature (Lee et al. 2005). The first cloned dog was created using an in vivo matured oocyte. The oocyte was enucleated before being fused with a mature skin cell from the dog that was the donor. The following year, 3 females Cloned Afghan canines were born (Jang et al., 2007), and we monitored their growth and assessed their fertility by artificial breeding with “Snuppy.” From these studies, we proved that female and male dogs can be cloned with SCNT and also that they possess normal reproductive capabilities (Park et al., 2010). In 2006, a cloned toy puppy was created from a donor who was 14 years old (Jang et al. 2008). A fibroblast stem cell from the donor was injected into an atrophying oocyte of the large breed dog. After fusing both the somatic cell of the small breed dog with the oocytes of the large breed dog, the reconstitued SCNT embryos were transferred into an androgen duct of a large breed dog. This way we demonstrated the possibility that larger breeds could be used as donors of oocytes as well as surrogate mothers in order to create clones of a small breed dog (Jang et al. (2008)). The same year two female cloned beagles were produced from fetal fibroblasts made by a large breed recipient (Hong et al. 2009a). Based on these study, researchers discovered that fibroblasts of dogs from the fetal phase up to old age may be reprogrammed by SCNT. In 2006 and 2007, the cloned female (Kim et al., 2007) and male wolves (Oh et al., 2008) were successfully produced using interspecies SCNT; this result suggested that the dog cloning technique is a possibility for the protection of canine species in extremely stressful situations, such as sudden death. Seven cloned drug-sniffing dogs were born in 2007 out of the same dog that had this ability (Oh et al. 2009). Subsequently, a cancer-sniffing dog was propagated by SCNT from 2008. (Park et al., 2009a), and an animal that was a quarantine dog for the purpose of detecting the presence of an agricultural ingredient in 2012. (Oh et al. 2013). Cloned drug sniffing dogs, the cloned cancer sniffing dogs, as well as cloned quarantine dogs have now been validated, having performed their duties within the fields. The results suggest that canines using SCNT methods are capable of creating dogs with exceptional capabilities. Additionally, a cloned animal was produced that continuously showed the expression of the red fluorescent proteins (RFP) gene (Hong et al., 2009b) as well as one that conditionally expressed GFP, the green fluorescent (GFP) gene (Kim et al. 2011,). It was confirmed by the transmission of germline genes using natural breeding methods that these dogs that were cloned were transgenic.

Dogs have been cloned over the last 8 years; a significant amount of history has been madeand there’s no doubt, canines’ SCNT methods will continue to have applications in many areas in the future.View chapterPurchase book

Canine Genomics and Genetics

Elaine A. Ostrander, Falina Williams, in Reference Module in Life Sciences, 2019

Breeds and Population Structure

The largest body to register dog breeds around the globe is known as the Federation Cynologique Internationale, which recognised 339 breeds in 2013. The 339 breeds have been divided into 10 categories based on appearance and/or behavior and function. Others niche populations exist or are “in process” and technically even if they are not officially they are a breed, yielding estimates of over 500 dog breeds domestically in the world.

The American Kennel Club (AKC) currently recognizes 189 breeds, with some but not all chosen based on appearance. To be a registered breed the breeding population has to not only meet the established standards of body conformity as well as behaviour, however, also those changes have to “breed true.” That is, a cross between breeds should result in puppies that adhere to the same standards of the parents. To be registered as a breed, the dog should have parents that were registered members of the same breed. Recent molecular studies using many SNPs have given a lot of insight as to how dog breeds are related to one another and the likelihood that a variety of breeds developed (Fig. 1).

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published.